Our 11th community story is about Prakash, a social worker from the community in the Mankhurd Transit Camp. Prakash noticed that the transit camp, a marginalised and vulnerable community, was being left out of mainstream relief efforts. In order to address this, he contacted Professor Amita Bhide and other NGOs, and conducted a survey of over 1200 households in the area to assess their needs, their levels of access to hygiene products and food, and prioritize relief efforts. Prakash’s leadership has enabled the community to access food and water, part time employment in government quarantine centres, and timely medication.
Here is our second presentation from the NIUA Ideathon that our Masters students from the Centre of Urban Policy and Governance participated in. Here they share their innovative measures for managing the task they were assigned and how the curriculum at the Centre has contributed to their knowledge of the urban.
Topic: Conserving water at household and neighbourhood level
Team members: Vipul Kumar, Akhil Ravella, Milan Sharma, Anmol Rana
We took a problem-centric approach intending to understand why water conservation is low and what causes wastage of water at the household level. We started off with trying to understand which type of settlements were the major users in Delhi that could be easily targeted to nudge behavior. We aimed to determine how we can nudge the behaviour of citizens to reduce the demand for water while using existing meausres, and by specifically targeting the problem that causes maximum wastage within the household.
Our first intervention creates a rating system for water appliances. By promoting water rating for taps, faucets, washing machines, shower heads, etc. we wished to nudge consumers to water-efficient appliances, similar on the lines of electrical appliances. The aim was not only to nudge behavioural change, but to make water conservation a priority in the household. Manufacturers are central to this idea, who were to be incentivised for such products, while the government promotes them in the market, housing projects/public offices, public toilets, making them an attractive option. As the products find their way in the market, awareness about the importance of such products would initiate change for consumers of the new water appliance market.
Our second intervention focuses on regulation in the functioning of ROs. This was decided as we observed that most households used ROs irrespective of the TDS (total dissolved solids) in water being supplied low. ROs typically waste 3 litres of water with every 1 litre of processed water. Hence, we decided that every household that requires an RO connection needs to get an approval from the board certifying that their TDS levels are high, making it obligatory for the RO company to provide a permanent storage tank, fixed beside the sink, where the wastewater can be collected with a mechanism to extract the wastewater. Moreover, the RO provider needs to issue a pamphlet in Hindi and English regarding various ways in which water can be utilised, like washing utensils, cleaning floors, clothes, etc.
Lastly, our third intervention was to make some changes in the water bill. We came up with an idea of including some data through easily understandable graphs regarding the past 4-5 months’ usage. This would be compared to the national average consumption level and neighbourhood consumption level. The bill would show a happy face if your consumption is below neighbourhood levels and sad face if your consumption level is above neighbourhood levels. And, there would be conservation tips on the back side of the bill. This intervention would nudge citizen’s behaviour eventually with data on consumption levels displayed, which would make them conscious about their consumption behaviour.
As a group we thought about some of the limitations with regard to our proposals., such as increased financial and administrative costs on Delhi government in terms of setting up a Nudge Unit and changes in design of water bills. Water is a state subject and an important political concern in Delhi, as currently the state government provides free water to some extent. The demand pattern needs to be analyzed by experimenting at a smaller level. Regulating the functioning of ROs in Delhi is a major challenge as it is a major lobby and bringing in certain interventions can put extra financial burden on RO companies which they can pass on to customers if not regulated properly.
The UPG course helped us to analyze the topic in a structured way – that is critically analyzing the issues. The course is designed to push students to identify the problems in a constructive manner before proposing a solution. This allowed us to consider the issue from a social, political, economical, and technical aspect. As we followed the approach, it brought us to possible solutions. The group participation added to our overall experience, encouraging constructive discussion, and offering a diverse range of perspectives.
The National Institute of Urban Affairs organised an Ideathon on the topic ‘Ideathon on ‘Nudging Civic Behavior towards an Environment-Friendly Delhi’ to invite ideas and strategies to be considered under the Master Plan of Delhi 2041. Our students from CUPG participated in the contest, and devised innovative ideas to address several concerns of urban governance, sustainability, policy, and civic participation. Students were divided into groups, with each group assigned specific problems to work on.
Here is the first installment of students’ experiences from their participation in the contest.
Topic: Segregating Solid Waste at Household Level
Team Members: Aadya Saxena, Aishwarya Dixit, Goutham Raj Konda, S. Prema Swarupa and Simran Pal Kaur.
We understand that an effective strategy for managing waste has to start with segregation of solid waste at the source of generation but this challenge has yet not achieved a holistic solution. Using the concept of the ‘nudge theory’, based on influencing how people think and behave, we aimed at improving people’s default decision-making for waste segregation among the residents of Delhi through a realistic approach.
We strategised to nudge community level accountability in order to foster household and community level waste segregating behaviour. We proposed to create smaller wing communities by grouping the society with 5 or 6 households. We proposed both positive and negative nudges with the belief that people often like to be conformists and that they often function with moral obligations. The positive nudges were: celebration of the occasion of installation of dual dustbins to remove ideas of disgust associated with it; involving the children in the process; rotation of responsibility of families every month to keep a check on segregation and using space-intensive bins in low-income neighbourhoods while simultaneously reducing dumping in the drains. The negatives nudges were: listing out the households in notices displayed on public information boards, serving letters to their homes for not segregating waste, highlighting the consequences of not segregating waste on their community and environment during the community meetings. Our strategy was based on the understanding that environment knowledge, moral obligation and perceived behavioral control will influence the attitude and separation intention which will prompt people to build a waste separation behaviour. However, this strategy has to persist regularly to be effective and achieve the goal of waste segregation.
In our course- Urban Policy and Governance, we have often critically discussed the Master Plans and have realised the significance of citizen engagement. Participating in this Ideathon was a good opportunity for us to brainstorm together and build on the learnings that we have had in our classes. Our course has often allowed us the space to experiment and ideate together for group work and helped us to improve our capacities to think clearly through classroom discussions. Our understanding of subjects such as sanitation and solid waste management, further bolstered our confidence to think about the topic. We saw this Ideathon as a chance to begin influencing some decision making in the procedure of planning for our cities to make it more sustainable and socially equitable ones. It was also an enriching experience to learn from the other teams about their ideas. The open discussion at the end of the session also helped us reflect on our ideas and opinions further.
Here is our 8th story from the community, titled ‘Helping Hands’. In this edition we talk about Mr. Sheikh, an auto rickshaw driver from Cheetah Camp who set up a community kitchen in his neighbourhood for migrant workers who have lost their livelihoods during this time and have little to no access to food and other basic amenities. Mr. Sheikh’s kitchen, that runs with the help of others in the community and local grocers, delivers nearly 500 food packets a day to those in need.
Taking Inspiration from the series of maps we created for Mumbai, Rajat Chopra from Datameet Pune Community has created a similar spatial repository of essential resources for his city.
Mr. Chopra says, the map has helped him observe patterns of infection and containment in the city. The map demonstrates that areas which have slums right beside IT offices are more likely to be containment zones, making one arrive at the uncomfortable realisation that it is the poor who are disproportionately affected by the virus. Procuring the data, which was available on the PMC website, came with its own share of glitches. The website often led to broken links, and could be accessed only in Marathi. Mr. Chopra believes this map could help NGOs working around the area to know more about patterns of contamination and design relief strategies accordingly. He hopes to be able to enhance the map by adding more information about the populations living in these areas, helping users understand the demography better.
Rajat Chopra grew up in Sirsa, Haryana (where he felt he never quite fit in), and therefore went all the way to SRM University to get a graduation degree in engineering (Computer Science). He then started working for the Indian MNC Wipro, but felt like he did not belong there either. Hence, went on to pursue his Masters in Geoinformatics from Symbiosis University, Pune. After working in Bangalore for about 4 years, he decided to return to academics, and went on to pursue his PhD in geoinformatics. He works at TomTom, Pune, where he continues to work with POIs, while continuing to work on his PhD.
Mr. Chopra likes reading about GIS in his spare time. For fun, he likes to organize and participate in cultural events, cook for friends and family and enjoy playing the Nashik dhol during Ganpati Festival.
Here is our 6th story about communities showing extraordinary resilience in the face of the global pandemic. This is a story of a visually challenged PhD student at IIT Mumbai who is reaching out with relief efforts to the fisherfolk community and the most vulnerable people with disabilities.
By Aastha Joshi
The digitisation of financial transactions in Lakdi Ka Pul was the first thing that appealed to me when I visited my fieldwork site. Lakdi Ka Pul is one of the oldest junctions of the historical city of Hyderabad. I would like to highlight through my blog how the oldest part of an ancient city has transitioned with technology and matched the pace of digitisation in terms of financial transactions. We talk about formal and informal economies, and measure them through different parameters. Transaction of money is one of the basic components of trade. This article will focus on incrementality in terms of technology and economic inclusion of informal economies in the mainstream through digital transactions.
Nowadays, the use of technology has become ubiquitous in every sphere of modern life. Hyderabad is the hub of the nation’s information technology boom. And its spillover effects are highly visible in other sectors too. It has helped the economy in several positive ways, by checking unaccounted money, filing returns, lower risks of carrying cash, etc… On the other side, it also raises concerns like cyber security, safety of money, difficulty for the technologically uninitiated, among others. Let us have a small GIF tour to understand digital payment through the LKP perspective.
I came across the above GIF image when I stepped into Lakdi ka Pul area and went to buy a screen guard for my mobile phone. While paying for the stuff I bought, I was amazed when the street vendor offered me multiple online payment options like Paytm, BHIM, Google pay, etc… Moreover, during a conversation with him, he explained to me how easy business has become for him after using such methods for trade. It helps him in saving money and he can keep track of his earnings with relative ease. Interestingly, he also mentioned that he felt like he was contributing towards the digitisation of the economy and working towards making the country more modern and youth friendly. Question that arises here is does incrementality is being ahead of others or coping with change. Sometimes change isn’t easy like difficulty in acquiring advanced knowledge. Street vendors like Salil Bhai who is in his late 60’s sometimes find technical operations on mobile difficult.
The above GIF was captured on my third visit to the field. I met a young merchant who ran a shop that sold mobile phone recharge vouchers. We talked about how the online recharge system had taken over their business to some extent. He also offers online payment mode for his services for recharging prepaid mobile carriers. I saw a flock of birds sitting on the several wires that hung around the place and casually asked him, “Bhaiya in wires ki wajzah se dikkat to nai hoti, idhar udhar latakte rehte hai?” and he promptly replied, “Arey Madam, ye wire hi to duniya ko jod kar rakhti hai, isse se hi to internet chalta haii!” Despite not knowing much about the workings of the telecom business, he is making his contribution according to his own understanding. He is facing two difficulties one the online competition and the other is accidental risk of entangled wires. Here I experienced a gap between incremental progress in the system and required skill to match the progress. The world is moving towards internet based services and leaving behind those who couldn’t catch the pace. This can be compared with cyber cafe businesses, which are losing their customers because of ease in accessibility.
From very large establishments to a small vegetable seller, everyone was digitised in their own way. Yes, Lakdi ka Pul shows great parity in terms using digital modes of payment. From the lens of incrementality it can be termed as evolution or clearly shows the process of digitisation in the area. They cater to a different customer base, they sell totally diverge commodity, in fact they belong to two different worlds but united by progressive and transparent ideas.
I took this image above when I visited the Financial District. A huge contrast can be seen: companies who develop, maintain and operate such transactions were adjacent to their most loyal customers. Allow me to clarify my use of the word ‘loyal’; I visited two shops in that area, one was a bakery where I stopped to buy mineral water bottles and the other was a small pan shop from where I bought some pieces of chewing gums. Both the shops accepted digital payments. While the first shopkeeper was sceptical about digital payment or any such transactions, the owner of the smaller shop casually said, “Madam jaise aapki marzi Hum aapki sewa mein hai idhar”. Digital payments are one of the authentic modes of transparent transactions or what we call White money and the question of unaccounted money is the biggest mystery in our country which can be resolved through such initiatives; But the bigger question is do we really want it to happen? The above quoted incident not only shows the faith of the poor towards the system but also ignorance of well off people. Vulnerable has seen the worst in his life and his life is like an open book and hence he welcomes any positive change happily and feels proud about his contribution.
Incrementality in terms of digitisation of Lakdi ka Pul has traveled a long journey from being an old age marketplace to modern shopping arena. People from almost all walks of life come here and contribute their bit. But the question is still the same. How everyone reacted to such incremental growth and till what extent it is profitable for them? Did digital incrementality was successful in bridging the gap between rich and poor, across genders?
By Anmol Rana
While walking towards Lakdi ka pul it is difficult to ignore the odd wooden structure which supposedly replicates the real bridge that the name is derived from. There is no Lakdi ka pul; the name merely pays tribute to the legacy of the wooden bridge that once existed in its place. As you move forward along NH-9 you see yourself crossing the junction with busy traffic and ongoing commercial activities.
The one-way traffic that passes through, the huge building structures appear to have pushed the structures away; the noise of the traffic makes pedestrians stall while they’re walking. What is interesting is the contrast between the commercial activities reflected on either side of the road.
On the left side of the road, you can see parked vehicles, people walking in the limited space, while the traffic frantically passes through. The buildings on the left side facing the road present a picture of busy commercial activity. From hotels, furniture shops, travel agencies, khadi, you can find it all.
Contrary to this, the right side of the same road has empty shops with their shutters pulled down. As one moves a little further ahead, with no space between the road and structures, the abandoned building comes into view prominently, bearing ‘to-let signs’ on them. Older sign boards still hang on the facades of these buildings, indicating that these used to be hotels or furniture shops earlier, but their names have been blurred out by the dust that has settled on them.
This contrast between the two sides of the road raises many questions. The abandoned buildings seem old and gloomy and appear to have left a prosperous past behind them. But it is not just the old buildings that have been left abandoned; more recent ones lay unoccupied as well. An interesting fact about this location is that the road has been expanded over time and even transformed into a one way to accommodate the increasing traffic.
While the road on the left has been expanded thrice, the one on the right has been expanded only once. It makes one wonder why the left side of the road has parking space while the right side doesn’t. As one takes the NH-9 road, you realize that it goes uphill and then down, and after taking the turn through the triangle, you realize that the local railway station passes under the bridge (Lakdi ka pul). What this suggests is that the landscape of the place which is hilly has been changed or planned to appear as we see it today.
It questions the circumstance that allowed such imbalanced planning and equally raises suspicion on the existence of potential influence, which resulted in certain group’s interests being favoured over the other’s. This might be speculative, but it does urge one to ask such questions.
While having a conversation with a very old resident whose family has been running a hotel in the area since generations, it became very evident. As the proud owner of café Victory, he talked about how the area has changed over the ages. He said ‘Kuchh nahi tha yaha pehle‘ (nothing existed here before). What you see now were residential buildings, but due to the location of Lakdi ka pul “aab sab business chaltha hai yeha” (now all businesses run here). This is why the road you see now has expanded so many times, even the area of my shop has been reduced. We do not know when the expansion will happen again. There was uncertainty in the manner he spoke. He told us that even after the road had been expanded, no one thought of parking space or footpaths for the shops. It was only after the people made some attempts to talk to the municipality with the help of influential people that the parking space was allowed on the left side of the road. He said that those with power and affluence had the connections in deciding who gets parking. While questioning indignantly on the legitimacy of such action, he took a sigh of relief as his shop coincidentally inclined with the side that has parking. This is why the shops on the other side keep losing business and therefore lie abandoned now, he explained. He can’t even remember how many shops have come and gone during this period. I asked him if no one ever protested against this unfair treatment. Someone must have, he said, but “koi chara nahi hai,” (No other choice) he sighed.
The abandoned building in Lakdi ka Pul represents the ghost of planning that has failed to accommodate various stakeholders who are affected by those very decisions. This has led to ill-planned infrastructure development, resulting in disadvantageous conditions for commercial activities, thereby forcing business enterprises to change locations. The top-down approach often is so blindly goal-oriented that it fails to accommodate the landscape, people, business, or residents of the area into its planning design. If the aim is to expand the road to provide more space for traffic, then what about its impact on other activities in the area? The connections that could make a difference for some and not for others has at least allowed some voices to be heard. In this complex urban space, nobody knows where accountability lies and with whom. What lies ahead for the abandoned building is an undefined path, with no one to rent insight.